In tightly organized sex trafficking groups there is more specialization and division of responsibilities than in loosely organized ones. For example local law enforcement Columbus and Toledo report that in these organized groups, “…people involved know only what they need to know to do their jobs. They do not know the traffickers names, or at least their real names, and whole operations can be run from the homes of traffickers without them ever coming into contact with the victims themselves.” (Wilson & Dalton 2007, p. 24)
In the US and throughout the world, many or most sex trafficking groups are ethnically-based (Shelly 2010b, 84). East Asian trafficking groups operating in the United States are particularly organized, in contract to domestic trafficking which consists mostly of loosely organized US-born pimps (Finnekauer 2007, Shelly 2010a). Operations are often vertically integrated, with organizations controlling operations from recruitment through to retail. For example, Chinese sex trafficking groups operating in the US “control the smuggling at all stages from recruitment…to an assignment in a brothel in order to secure long-term profits,” which are then reinvested back into legitimate businesses in East Asia. (Shelly 2010a, 124). This degree of organization makes their operations particularly effective and difficult to combat. For this reason we will focus on the operations of East Asian sex trafficking retailers operating in the United States.
East Asian groups in the United States typically operate out of different forms brothels. These typically take the form of East Asian “massage parlors,” located in many major US metropolitan areas including Washington, DC, where there are many of these businesses area (Washington Post). This contrasts with the model of domestic retailers in the US who typically utilize the ‘flying prostitute’ model.
Polaris Project (2011) reports that East Asian massage parlors are typically managed by older women (many of which are presumable former CSE victims) and owned by men. This reflects traditional East Asian social structure where women are subordinate to men. Other roles within East Asian trafficking operations include enforcers and transporters. (Polaris Project 2011).
East Asian sex retail operations outside of massage parlors are often conducted in “room salons/hostess clubs, residential brothels, karaoke bars, [and] escort services,” (Polaris Project 2011). Polaris Project Executive Director Bradley Myles believes that level of knowledge and effort required by retailers to hide behind the legal veil of legitimate business in these settings– regarding “laws, licensing, zoning, interacting with landlords and with legitimate reporting systems” – means that it would be very difficult for retailers to achieve or maintain this business model were they not part of a larger criminal enterprise (Washington Post).
- Jeremy Wilson & Erin Dalton. 2007. Trafficking in Ohio: Markets, Responses, and Considerations. Rand Corporation.
- Polaris Project. 2011. Comparison Chart of Primary Sex Trafficking Networks in the U.S.
- Louise Shelly. 2010a. Trafficking in Women: the Business Model Approach.
- Louise Shelly 2010b. Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective.
- James Finnekauer. 2007. Asian Transnational Organized Crime and Its Impact on the United States.
- Profile of a Trafficker (fourbluehills.com)
- Polaris Project Supports South Carolina Lobby Day to End Human Trafficking! (imaginepublicity.com)
- Organizations Engaged in the Fight Against Human Trafficking (globalaffairsblog.wordpress.com)
- Human trafficking ‘a national security issue,’ Obama task force told (thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com)
- UN Report: 1.9 Million People Are Victims Of Sex Trafficking, Most Won’t Be Rescued (inquisitr.com)